Mt. Vernon was built in 1735 by George Washington’s father, Augustine, and George acquired Mount Vernon in 1754. It began as a one and one-half story farmhouse, and over the next 45 years the building was slowly enlarged to create the wonderful 21-room residence we see today. Washington personally supervised each renovation, selecting architectural features that expressed his growing status as a Virginian gentleman planter and ultimately as the first President of the United States.
The gardens that surround the mansion, however, were just as important as the living quarters considering they sustained the food supply of the family and all the visitors that flocked to George Washington’s home every year. Even when the Washingtons were not present at the mansion, Martha Washington made sure the gardens were well tended, to be sure of the supply and abundance of fruits and vegetables upon their return. The upper garden was transformed into a pleasure garden, occupied by a myriad of beautiful flowers surrounding the remaining vegetable beds. Washington procured the pleasure garden, along with a green house, as an alluring keynote for his guests to admire the beauty and fragrances provided by his lush gardens.
In the attached video you will catch glimpses of the upper garden wall, which is currently being restored using LimeWorks.us’ Ecologic™ Mortar manufactured using St. Astier’s NHL 2 and a custom blend of aggregates and pigments to simulate the coloration of the historic garden wall. Although you will not see the actual mortar in use, these videos below share more about the Upper and Lower Gardens.
The Chemical Heritage Foundation released an episode of their award winning podcast Distillations. In this episode, Randy Ruth, formerly of LimeWorks.us, discusses the chemistry behind lime mortar, historic masonry buildings and the ongoing efforts to preserve one of the finest works of notable Philadelphia architect, Frank Furness. The 19th Street Baptist Church located in South Philadelphia has been in a state of disrepair for decades. This episode sheds light on the chemistry behind its construction and the ongoing preparation to save it.
Randy Ruth, at the time, was the lab tech at LimeWorks.us. He bridged the gap between architects, conservators and masonry practitioners on what types of building materials to use in reconstruction and restoration of masonry projects throughout the country.
“Randy and his colleagues at LimeWorks.us based in Quakertown, Pennsylvania were brought in to try and save the 19th Street Baptist Church
We took a look at at the types of mortars that were there and by knowing that the building was built in 1874 we could gauge what those original binders were without even necessarily doing an analysis. Architects, engineers and of course masons would use the local available materials which were at the 19th Street Baptist Church primarily lime based binders.
Lime is a very general term for inorganic materials that contain calcium and it’s been use in concrete and building materials since the Roman Empire. It’s derived from limestone and other rocks that are primarily made of calcium carbonate.
Basically lime is that calcium carbonate stone and it’s put into a kiln with fuel. These kilns would then be fired up to 900 degrees Celsius or slightly above and then the resulting product is a limestone that loses about a third of its weight because it’s driving off carbon dioxide so that calcium carbonate is now becoming calcium oxide.
This is all part of what’s called the Lime Cycle. Calcium carbonate is heated to produce calcium oxide and then it’s combined with water to form calcium hydroxide. Different amounts of water is added to form different consistencies.
That process is called slaking, if just a small amount of water is added it’s going to turn into a powder. If a little bit more water is added it’s still calcium hydroxide but it’s in the form of a putty.
Once the lime is in this putty form it’s spread over bricks and stones and hardens into a solid bond.
That limestone then stays malleable and flexible in a wall system in comparison to more modern materials.
Modern materials like cement. Portland cement is the most common type of cement used around the world. It’s made of primarily alite or tricalcium silicate, a more rigid and less permeable material than lime.
You’re walking down the sidewalk and wondering why are they sectioned off in four food squares or six foot squares and that’s because Portland cement is very brittle and we have to tell it where to crack and where to go versus the lime buildings like the 19th Street Baptist Church. There are no control joints and things were able to move freely and accommodate small bits of movement because lime unlike Portland Cement has the ability to heal itself, something called autogenous healing.
This autogenous healing is part of why the 19th Street Baptist Church is still standing today but the original lime mortar is all but dissolved now and that’s why the building is crumbling.
Lime mortars as they age and as they wear, they’re meant to be replaced so there’s always a maintenance issue associated with them. I hope that there is a lot of architectural salvage that can occur to pay homage to the traditional materials that were originally by Frank Furness and his architectural team.
In essence they should be able to replenish the lime mortar in the structure, but after so many years of neglect it’s getting late in the game.”
This beautiful church was designed by Frank Furness and is located at the corner of 19th and Titan in South Philadelphia. It almost went the way of many Furness structures; due to neglect and time the church leadership is under pressure to begin repairs or plan for it to be demolished due to unsafe conditions sited by the License and Inspections Department of the city. Under the leadership of Reverend Vincent J. Smith and in partnership with the Greater Philadelphia Preservation Alliance and some volunteers, stabilization efforts have finally begun.
As the morning sun crept over the skyline on the last Saturday of April, Randy Ruth, mason and the laboratory technician from LimeWorks.us volunteered to lead a workshop with a team of a few other volunteers to complete some small but crucial repairs on the north facing wall of the 19th Street Baptist Church.
The church has been in need of serious repairs for a number of years as observed and documented in a 2000 University of Pennsylvania report, Thesis by Molly Anne Sheehan, which show that the conditions of the church and the exterior Serpentine Stonework have continued to deteriorate steadily.
Under Randy’s supervision the team of volunteers used a lime mortar donated by LimeWorks.us for doing some in-kind repairs to stabilize the failing back-up walls behind the Serpentine stone. This lime and sand mortar reflects what would have been used originally when the church was constructed in the late 1800s. Ecologic® Mortar contains NO harmful Portland Cement and allows the building to breathe and process water as it did originally. At some point in time, a hard and brittle Portland Cement stucco was placed over a significant part of the building, trapping moisture and leading to further deterioration of the soft, sedimentary serpentine stone and contributing to mold issues that the church basement still has to deal with today.
This was the first step in saving the most colorful building ever designed by Furness… A true master plan is needed for the next step in partnership with strong fundraising efforts to truly bring this sacred place back to its original glory.
Other stories about the 19th Street Baptist Church…
Of course following the Lithomex technical data sheet is important to ensure a quality application, but what about the little things that can’t fit on one sheet of paper? The small details that help make good finish “POP” into a quality indistinguishable patch. There are many things that are far to subtitle to translate onto paper from experience and feel of mortar and trowel. So practice, timing and tools are critical overview subjects to be discussed here.
Practicing patching old single salmon bricks not in a wall is a cheap and technically challenging exercise. The porosity of salmon bricks demonstrates the importance of controlling suction. If suction is not controlled, bond failure can occur while detailing outside corners. It’s these corners that give rise to the technical challenge. By coating multiple sides of a brick, it helps create focus on multiple surface planes. The initial reshaping step doesn’t have to be perfect. It just has to have about 1/8 inch extra material beyond the desired finish. Once Lithomex is well bonded to three sides of a brick, wait for the material to stiffen to thumbprint hard.
Re-troweling the surface will compact the patch to compensate for any slight shrinkage. While using trowels, squares, straight edges, miter rods and improvised tools to shave back and cut away undesired material to the finished profile will create the rough finish. When finishing a masonry unit in a wall, long metal straight edges are great to use as a profiling tool. With the edges exposed over to adjacent units or edges, they act as a guide to bring the finish to proper plane. Typically much of this profiling can be done in the first day of patching; however 12-24 hours later more intricate detailing and carving can be done. Tooth chisels can be used during this time frame to scratch in tooth marks or crandled finishes.
As more time is allowed to let the patch “firm up” stone masons chisels can be used in a traditional method to give more authentic characteristics. Sanders and rubbing block are also useful for honing the surface to a more polished or pristine finish.
Following these tips and practicing will build upon previous experiences for the craftsman or aspiring novice, facilitating a better rounded approach to brick, stone and terracotta patching.
Bricks can hollow back quite profusely in some cases. What are some of the causes?
Don’t forget vermin. Accelerated wetting and drying cycles near the bottom of the brick building cause an increase in the decay of the soft bricks. However, where there is water and calcium rich lime mortar there can be ants and bugs nesting in and behind the wythe. Masonry Bees are found in some parts of the country and will burrow. Sparrows and Starlings will take the calcium bits from lime mortar and like a cuttle bone use the grains for digestion. Some very deep holes in the brickwork are from wood peckers who sense the presence of the bugs and they hone in on certain areas in an attempt to get to them. Here’s one example that may have been caused by a combination of water and animals.