Learning to Use Lithomex

Recently some of the employees of LimeWorks.us had the opportunity to learn more about our product Lithomex from Douglas Johnston, of Mason’s Mortar, Scotland. Lithomex is a natural hydraulic lime based stone and brick patching material that comes in a variety of colors and can be textured to replicate any existing stone. The training course included lectures and hands on work with Lithomex, providing us with different application techniques and a better understanding of what the capabilities of the product are. The course was approached from two angles, that of someone who has never used the material and that of a traditional stone mason, in order to illustrate that Lithomex can be used by anyone.

What makes Lithomex such a desirable material for patch repair comes from the nature of the material itself. Since it is lime based it has all of the characteristic that you would want by using natural hydraulic lime, it is breathable allowing water vapor to move through keeping it from becoming trapped, which can lead to major problems if other patch materials were used.

Lithomex can be worked while still in its plastic state, once it is set, or any time in between, making it user friendly for artist, sculptors, plasterers, and stone masons alike. The training course mainly focused on applying the material to a wall, squaring up and leveling the Lithomex surface and then tooling it while it was thumb print hard and after its initial set. We were taught different tooling techniques that are commonly used on ashlar stone work, using the same tools which stone masons would employ when they dress stone block, however with the added challenge of dressing the Lithomex “stone” while it is already on the surface of the wall. A section of the wall panel was also tooled to replicate that of a rubble stone wall. Other techniques that were learned were how to better utilize Lithomex in replicating more complex stone, such as granite (which has many different inclusions) and veining such as that found in marble.

The skills and information that were learned during this training course are going to be used to create a Lithomex Workshop by LimeWorks.us for anyone that wants to learn more about Lithomex. Two workshops for Lithomex will be offered: one is for a DIY person or novice mason and the second is for professionals who need official certification. Professionals can take our advanced courses in how to apply the material in order to replicate stone, brick, or or terra cotta for any project where Lithomex is specified by Historical Restoration Architects and Historic Building Conservators.

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Phone: 245-536-6706

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Limelight on Historic Brownstone Restoration – Alfred’s Victorian

Alfred’s Victorian Restoration Story –  with Andy deGruchy

Alfred's Victorian Staff
Alfred’s Victorian Staff

 

This beautiful late 19th century Hummelstown brownstone was recently restored by deGruchy Masonry Restoration, the Technical Install/Training Team of LimeWorks.us. Using historically appropriate, breathable Natural Hydraulic Lime based materials for repointing the brickwork and repairing the brownstone, this iconic building is now put into an excellent state of conservation. It remains a testament to excellent stewardship of our built heritage thanks to the owner, and lifelong resident of Middletown, PA, Robin Pellegrini.

Taking an architectural conservator’s approach, the team of masons repaired the broken and missing pieces of historic sandstone and lime mortar with environmentally friendly Ecologic® Mortar and Lithomex Brick and Stone repair material. The team retained as much of the historic fabric as possible by repairing what could be salvaged with these specialty materials. These materials allow the building envelope to process water out naturally through the lime and sandstone because of their effective liquid/vapor transfer properties over any patch material based on Portland cement.

Please take a look at our other videos for the full extent of this remarkable restoration:

True Sustainable Development in Historic Restoration  – Alfred’s Victorian –  Randy Ruth

Restoring Historic Alfred’s Victorian Brownstone  –  Randy Ruth

Natural Hydraulic Lime Mortars for Historic Preservation and Their Impact on the Environment –  Randy Ruth

 

Presented by LimeWorks.us
Phone: 215-536-6706

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Case Study on Masonry Repair and Patching Material – Lithomex

Damaged stone and brick is a common problem for many historic structures around the world. Lithomex is a breathable in-kind repair material for most types of damaged stone and brick. The following is an example of a Lithomex repair on a historic 19th century stone house…

Lithomex Repair in Merion Station, PA:

This house, located in Merion Station Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia, was constructed in the 1920s during the Arts and Crafts style movement. This movement was a direct descendant of the British Arts and Crafts movement which was initiated by William Morris during the mid 1800s as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution and its lack of concern for human lives in the work place. This movement was meant to bring back pride to the true craftsmen once again with an emphasis on hand-made vs. mass production.

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Before applying Lithomex

This house was handcrafted using a variety of stone including Mica Schist, Serpentine, Red Sandstone, Brownstone, PA Bluestone, and some Limestone. It was originally pointed with a high Portland cement content mortar, either 5:1:2 or 1:3 formula of Cement, Lime and sand. Unfortunately this was a recipe for disaster.

During the following 80 years, the softer sandstones received the greatest damage due to the freeze/ thaw cycles of the cold Pennsylvania winters. This combined with later modifications including new windows which were installed improperly allowed water to be trapped behind and within the stone walls. Leaks developed within the house and the homeowners decided it was time to fix things the right way.

BEFORE PHOTOS

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Lithomex being applied

A team from Galli Masonry Restorations took on the challenge to bring this historic home back to its original glory. First they removed all the old pointing and filled in the voids with LimeWorks.us Natural Hydraulic Lime mortar. Then blended with Lithomex colors and textures to replicate the original look of the stone. The damaged serpentine, brownstone and bluestone was repaired and blended in to be virtually unnoticeable.  The color and composition of the final pointing work was chosen by the homeowner which was a mix of Ecologic® Mortar DGM non-pigmented, DGM Grey and black Slag-fleck.

 

 

 

Back Camera
Back Camera


 

Damaged stone

 

 

 

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Damaged wall at window

 

 

 

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Measuring damaged serpentine stone

 

 

 

 

 

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Lithomex on chimney

 

 

 

 

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Crafting Lithomex

 

 

 

 

AFTER PHOTOS

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Side of house after Lithomex application image 1

 

 

 

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After Lithomex application image 2

 

 

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After Lithomex application image 3

 

 

 

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After Lithomex application image 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

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After Lithomex application image 5

 

 

 

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After Lithomex application image 6

 

 

 

 

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After Lithomex application image 7

 

 

 

All Photos Copyright George Galli, Galli Masonry Restoration

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Repairing Broken and Damaged Stone and Brick using Lithomex – FAQ by Randy Ruth

by Randy Ruth

Randy-doing-Lithomex

Of course following the Lithomex technical data sheet is important to ensure a quality application, but what about the little things that can’t fit on one sheet of paper?  The small details that help make good finish “POP” into a quality indistinguishable patch. There are many things that are far to subtitle to translate onto paper from experience and feel of mortar and trowel. So practice, timing and tools are critical overview subjects to be discussed here.

Practicing patching old single salmon bricks not in a wall is a cheap and technically challenging exercise. The porosity of salmon bricks demonstrates the importance of controlling suction. If suction is not controlled, bond failure can occur while detailing outside corners. It’s these corners that give rise to the technical challenge. By coating multiple sides of a brick, it helps create focus on multiple surface planes. The initial reshaping step doesn’t have to be perfect. It just has to have about 1/8 inch extra material beyond the desired finish. Once Lithomex is well bonded to three sides of a brick, wait for the material to stiffen to thumbprint hard.

DSC_0126Re-troweling the surface will compact the patch to compensate for any slight shrinkage. While using trowels, squares, straight edges, miter rods and improvised tools to shave back and cut away undesired material to the finished profile will create the rough finish. When finishing a masonry unit in a wall, long metal straight edges are great to use as a profiling tool. With the edges exposed over to adjacent units or edges, they act as a guide to bring the finish to proper plane. Typically much of this profiling can be done in the first day of patching; however 12-24 hours later more intricate detailing and carving can be done. Tooth chisels can be used during this time frame to scratch in tooth marks or crandled finishes.

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As more time is allowed to let the patch “firm up” stone masons chisels can be used in a traditional method to give more authentic characteristics. Sanders and rubbing block are also useful for honing the surface to a more polished or pristine finish.

Following these tips and practicing will build upon previous experiences for the craftsman or aspiring novice, facilitating a better rounded approach to brick, stone and terracotta patching.

Other Examples in Use:

 



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Phone: 245-536-6706

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“Deteriorating Brownstones – FAQ by Randy Ruth”

by Randy Ruth

Q: I have an old brownstone house and some of the stone have been falling off, what can I do to prevent further damage and fix the damage that has already occurred?

A:  When you have brownstone deterioration or any form of stone deterioration and want it to stop, you have to first identify the root cause. Sometimes it’s as simple as replacing downspouts or replacing roof flashing, to prevent further damage to the stone. Other times it can be a long complicated series of tests and empirical analysis. Depending on the cause of the deterioration of the brownstone, a number of solutions can be applied.

If the stone is only sugaring or sanding with light deterioration, then perhaps doing nothing for a maybe a year and watching the stone for further deterioration is sufficient. However, if the stone is in much worse shape with possibly a ¼ inch or more of stone loss, then some could be some very serious problems with the integrity of the stone.

Brownstone as with many different types of sandstone has bedding planes. These bedding planes in the stone tend to detach from one and other depending on how the stone was laid in the wall. Imagine a layered cake as the stone, with each layer on top of one and other. If the stone cake is put on its side there is a greater chance that moisture can get between the layers and cause delimitation and or exfoliation. This being a common problem associated with sandstone, a more detailed resource for classifying the type of stone loss you may have can be found here.

It is always recommended that when fixing damage to stone that a qualified professional be brought out to see what the damage is and come up with an appropriate course of action. There are many different ways to approach fixing a stone like whether consolidation is appropriate is an appropriate first step or not. In my eyes, it is always best to honor the original detail of the stone and artisan who created it by only fixing what is broken. When patching stonework an important approach is to make sure that appropriate sympathetic patching materials are used. (Lithomex) The use of impermeable materials can cause further deterioration of the stone by trapping moisture. This will result in a faulty patch that can accelerate deterioration to the adjacent stone.

Brownstone with Water damage

Brownstone Before

 Brownstone Repaired with Lithomex

Brownstone After

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Phone: 245-536-6706

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